Obtain The Time IEEE 1588-2008 (PTP)
Domain Time II Server
Version 5.2

Information and configuration instructions for using the Precision Time Protocol (IEEE 1588-v2) with Domain Time II.

 
Introduction

Domain Time II supports Precision Time Protocol version 2 (IEEE 1588-2008) which is used to determine the current time offset and discipline the local clock on PTP slaves to a high degree of accuracy.

  • Domain Time II can be configured to run in slave-only PTP mode using the Default (multicast or hybrid), Enterprise, or (as of v5.2.b.20180606) the Telecom PTP profile (see PTP Profiles below). This applies to both Domain Time II Client and Domain Time II Server.

  • Domain Time II Server allows you to let Domain Time II assume the master clock role using either the Default or Enterprise (Hybrid) PTP Profiles. As of v5.2.b.20180801, Domain Time Server can also act as a Telecom master. This option should only be enabled if you have no hardware-based PTP grandmaster, or if you need a software-based backup to your grandmaster. PTP is designed to work with hardware-based clocks. Software-based clocks cannot offer the same degree of precision or accuracy as hardware-based clocks.

  • Using the Default or Enterprise profiles, Domain Time II attempts to automatically detect and synchronizes to the best master on the local segment. When using the Telecom profile, you must must manually select the Telecom profile and configure a list of acceptable masters.

  • PTP has two delay-measurement mechanisms, End-to-End and Peer-to-Peer. Most master clocks can support either, but only one at a time. Domain Time II auto-detects the delay mechanism and uses whichever one the master supports.

  • Domain Time is compatible with masters providing both one-step and two-step followups. When running as a Master, Domain Time Server acts as a one-step clock.

  • PTP is a “chatty” protocol. The master clock sends announce, sync, and other messages on a regular basis, and slaves send queries and responses of their own. The default sync frequency is one per second, but most master clocks allow this number to be adjusted, and many administrators consider choosing a higher number. Theoretically, the higher the rate of messages, the more accurately the slave can measure the master's information, but this is primarily true only for hardware appliances. Domain Time II is heavily optimized to perform best at one sync packet per second, so increasing the sync frequency can actually lead to worse performance.

  • A standard-compliant PTP node using the Default Profile operates using only multicast messages. This means that not only does every node see the master’s messages, but every node sees every request made by every slave, and every reply. Domain Time II tries to reduce this traffic by sending unicast delay requests (Hybrid Mode). The Enterprise Profile also uses unicast delay requests. If the master clock supports multicast with unicast replies, Domain Time II will continue using only unicast for delay measurement with that clock. If the master does not support unicast for delay requests, Domain Time II will fall back to using multicast. Domain Time can also operate as a Telecom profile slave (as of v5.2.b.20180606) or master (as of v5.2.b.20180801). Telecom masters and slaves communicate solely over unicast.

  • When PTP is enabled on Domain Time II, it runs continuously in the background, exchanging messages with the master and collecting statistics. You can see this activity using the Domain Time II logs and graphs from the links on the Obtain the Time property page of the control panel applet.

  • PTPv1 is not supported. PTPv1 and PTPv2 are incompatible. A special appliance is required to separate v1 and v2 segments. Domain Time II will not recognize or respond to PTPv1 messages.

  • Domain Time II does not support the experimental PTP authentication mechanisms described in Annex K of 1588-2008. A new type of authentication is being developed for PTP v2.1, and Domain Time II will support that after it is finalized.

 

Optimum Environment for PTP

The hardware, software, and network environment is critical for PTP synchronization at the sub-millisecond level. This section will help customers hoping to achieve sub-millisecond synchronization across your network of machines:

  • CPU
    The best processors for time synchronization are Intel’s Core i7 line (or later) or Xeon E7 line (or later). Earlier chips are not as stable or as precise as the newer models. The newer processors also have an invariant timestamp counter, which allows Domain Time II to measure the passage of time accurately regardless of SpeedStep or other power-saving mechanisms. Issuing
    DTCHECK /cpuid from the command-line will show you whether or not your processor supports an invariant TSC.

  • Operating System
    Win8-Win10, or Server 2012-2016 are preferred and are more predictable than Vista, Windows 7, Windows 2008, or Windows 2008r2 for high-accuracy timing. The older XP/Server 2003 platform is also more stable than the problematic Vista/Win7/2008/2008r2 versions.

  • Domain Time Version
    PTP is a loose and evolving standard. You should always use the most current version of Domain Time Server or Client to be sure you are getting optimal performance and compatibility. Check the Changelog to see details of the current version.

  • Network Switches
    The lower the latency in your network switches or hubs, the better. Switches typically use store-and-forward technology, which means that packets can be delayed even under ideal circumstances. During times of high traffic, the delay time can quickly soar to unacceptable levels. Even a small delay will affect timing, even though other applications may not even notice it. If you have managed switches, examine the statistics to determine if packets are being delayed. You may also set up a test environment and compare the synchronization accuracy in your test environment vs. your production environment. If the performance suffers in your production environment with identical equipment, suspect underpowered switches.

    Some switches and routers have PTP-awareness (such those capable of operating as boundary clocks) which can intercept or interfere with PTP communications. Be sure you have updated all of these to the latest firmware. Many implementations of these products have had significant bugs, such as preventing PTP management messages from being propagated correctly.

    If your managed switch supports QoS, you should set it so that PTP traffic (to/from UDP ports 319 and 320) have the highest possibly priority.

  • Other Applications
    Most user-mode applications do not affect timing significantly. However, programs that change the system clock resolution, or that overtax the hardware, can degrade performance. If possible, avoid Java-based applications, Flash applications, or any program that exercises the CPU excessively.

  • Miscellaneous Hardware and Drivers
    Drivers for NICs, video, and disk subsystems can cause unpredictable delays in servicing interrupts. Windows timing relies on the regularity and predictability of interrupts. If sub-millisecond timing is critical for your environment, use only the best and fastest hardware.

    Some switches and routers have PTP-awareness (such those capable of operating as boundary clocks) which can intercept or interfere with PTP communications. Be sure you have updated all of these to the latest firmware. Many implementations of these products have had significant bugs, such as preventing PTP management messages from being propagated correctly.

  • Virtualization
    Any machine running either Hyper-V or VMWare will not perform as well as a stand-alone machine, although modern versions of Hyper-V (as of Server 2012) offer dramatically improved timing performance. This applies to both the host operating system and any guests, using any time synchronization protocol. On older hardware or systems with high resource use/low memory, the extra overhead of handling the continual PTP network activity may actually result in more interrupt delays among guests, resulting in additional clock drift.

  • Use a hardware clock as your master, if possible
    PTP works best with hardware-based grandmaster clocks. Although you may design a network using only software components, your accuracy will be somewhat diminished. We recommend careful planning to ensure you have hardware clocks available, and that their capacity is commensurate with your expected load. Your grandmaster manufacturer can help you plan your network.

 

Configuring Domain Time II for PTP Operation
Please review the Planning and Recommended Configurations pages before proceeding.

  • To Configure Domain Time as a PTP Slave:
    In order to use Domain Time as a PTP Slave to an existing Master, you must make the following configuration choices on the Obtain the Time property page on the Domain Time applet:

    1. Choose the Set this machine's clock by querying a list of servers radio-button.

    2. On versions prior to 5.2.b.20150828, you must uncheck the Analyze time samples from all servers and choose the best checkbox to prevent skewing of the time by the additional sample analysis from sources other than PTP. However, on current versions, you may leave this box checked, since non-PTP samples are now automatically excluded. This allows you to have better performance when falling back to DT2 or NTP sources without degrading the PTP performance in normal operation.

    3. IMPORTANT: Specify at least one reliable non-PTP server (either NTP or DT2) in the List of backup time sources to use. field to act as fallback server(s). This way, when PTP hasn’t synchronized yet or when it fails because the master clock goes offline, Domain Time II will have another source for time. This also aids in quick recovery should an unexpected large excursion occur (PTP takes a longer time to correct large variances).

    4. If your PTP Default or Enterprise profile Master is not on the same subnet as the Client, be sure the Multicast IPv4 TTL (Hop count for IPv6) settings on the Client's Broadcasts and Multicasts property page are set high enough to allow multicasts to cross intervening switches and routers. Typically you would set this value at least one higher than the number of router hops involved. Note your Master must also have its router hops values configured to allow its multicasts to cross any boundaries. When using the Telecom profile, hop count settings are irrelevant.

    5. On the Logs & Status property page, enable a lazy write delay of at least 5 seconds. This helps prevent disruptions to accuracy from the logging process.

    6. On the Timings property page, set both the Check Interval when able to get and correct the time and Check Interval when getting the time fails settings to use the same fixed period; we recommend a setting of every 1 minute. Do not set these values lower than every 30 seconds when using PTP. Although these settings do not control PTP synchronization rates, they do affect sample collection and control how often Domain Time synchronizes if falling back to DT2 or NTP, and also how often it records sync status in the text logs and performs other alerting functions. Too short of a period may not allow PTP enough time to collect valid samples.

      Note: PTP does not begin synchronizing immediately when starting. It must listen to the network to detect the master clock, and must then calibrate to it before usable time samples are available to the Domain Time II clock management algorithms. This means that for a period after startup, or if PTP sync is lost, Domain Time II will not be able to use PTP as a time source. Having a backup NTP or DT2 time source ensures the system has a good source of time in the interim. Also, PTP can take a fairly long time to correct large variances, so having a fallback server avoids having a long training period for PTP to bring the clock into conformance.

    7. Check the Enable IEEE 1588 Precision Time Protocol (PTP) checkbox.

    8. If you are going to be synchronizing using the Telecom profile, click the "Options" link and make the following additional selections on the PTP Options dialog (otherwise, leave the options at the default settings):

      1. Choose the "End-to-End Telecom Profile" from the PTP Profile dropdown list.

      2. Select the Only select best master clock from among those listed below radio button in the Best Master Clock Options section. Enter the IP address of the Telecom master server(s) you want to use - one per line. Only one server will be used at a time. Domain Time will attempt to use the servers in the order listed.

      3. If your telecom server is non-standard, you may click the button to set Telecom-specific settings. Do not change these values unless your server requires them.

    9. Click the Apply button to save your changes. Domain Time will then start listening for Master announcements, and will automatically calibrate and start synchronizing with a suitable Default or Enterprise profile Master. You may check the activity of the PTP conversation by clicking the Status and Graph links.

      Troubleshooting
      The default PTP settings should be sufficient for Domain Time to synchronize with most Master clocks. However, you may encounter some network issues or non-compliant Master servers that prevent synchronization. Here are some steps you can try:

      1. Verify that multicasts are allowed on your network. See the Planning documentation for network requirements.

      2. Ensure that there is an IGMP-enabled router attached to the same subnet as your PTP Master and Slaves. IGMP is required to join multicast groups. Unlike with unicast protocols like NTP, a direct cable connection to a clock with only a crossover cable will not work.

      3. Enable network communication through firewalls. You may quickly open all relevant time protocol ports in the Windows Firewall using the following command as Administrator from a command-prompt (Version 5.2 and later):

          dtcheck -firewall:open

        NOTE: Certain versions of Windows block these ports by default regardless of whether the Windows Firewall service is running. The Windows Firewall service must be started to run the above command. If the service is disabled, you must re-enable it temporarily to run the command, then re-disable the service if you wish.

      4. Ensure that the following checkboxes are checked on the Network property page:

        Initiate rebind and resync if IP address changes
        Enumerate multicast interfaces during IPv4/IPv6 bind
        Reply to multicasts using incoming interface if possible

      5. To easily see which PTP masters are visible on your network, Click the Status link on the Obtain the Time property page and then click the PTP Masters link at the bottom of the stats display. Available master servers will appear in this utility. Select the master you want to use, and click the button. This will often be able to automatically configure Domain Time with the correct settings to use that master.

        You may also issue the following command from a command-prompt:

          dtcheck -ptpmasters

      6. Be sure you have not excluded the IP address of your PTP Grandmaster using the Best Master Clock Options settings.

      7. If your machine is multihomed, you may need to restrict Domain Time to listen only on the proper subnet using the Listen only on these addresses: list box on the Network property page.

      8. Try relaxing strict IEEE 1588 requirements. Click the Options link to display the IEEE Precision Time Protocol Options page. Then, click the button to display the IEEE 1588 Precision Time Protocol Advanced Settings dialog page.

        First, uncheck the Require strict IEEE 1588-2008 standard compliance (recommended) checkbox. Test to see if this configuration now allows synchronization.

        Next, uncheck the Require ptpTimescale (IEEE 15878-2008 section 8.2.4.8) checkbox. Test to see if this configuration now allows synchronization. Take care with this option. If unchecked, your Master clock may be using a different timescale than expected, resulting in the time being off. Check with your clock manufacturer to be sure the Master clock is using the correct timesecale.

      9. Specify a PTP profile if one isn't being autodetected. On the IEEE Precision Time Protocol Options page, you may use the PTP Profile dropdown to specify the profile used by your Master clock.

      10. Specify a defined Delay Transport option instead of "Auto-detect." Disable Unicast support if necessary.

      11. Ensure the Clock Identity value is unique on your network. The default value is derived from the MAC address of your primary network adapter during installation. You must change this value to a different guaranteed-unique value if the PTP master to which you want to sync is on the same NIC and/or has the same Clock Identity. Otherwise, do not change this value.

      12. As mentioned above, newer switches and routers may have PTP-awareness (such as those capable of acting as boundary clocks). Many of these have had firmware bugs that actually interfere with proper PTP operation. If you are using such a device, try swapping in a standard non-PTP capable switch to see if you can communicate properly. If so, contact your hardware vendor to obtain a fix/firmware update.

      13. Use the PTPCheck utility to verify your PTP devices are providing management messages. Copy the program to various machines on either side of switches and routers to verify the PTP traffic is being passed by your network equipment without interference.

     
  • To Configure Domain Time Server as a PTP master:
    In order to use Domain Time as a PTP Master, you must make the following configuration choices on the Obtain the Time property page on the Domain Time applet:

    1. Choose the Set this machine's clock by querying a list of servers radio-button.

    2. You may configure Domain Time Server as either the primary Grandmaster clock (using the Default, Enterprise, or Telecom profile), or as a backup master (using the Default or Enterprise profile).

      If this machine will be the primary Grandmaster on the network:

      1. Configure Domain Time Server to get its time from at least one (preferably three or more) trusted external time sources using either the DT2 or NTP time protocols. Note: You cannot configure Domain Time Server to obtain the time via PTP from a different master and also simultaneously serve the time using PTP (i.e. act as a boundary clock).

        By default, Domain Time Server will not act as a PTP Master unless it is correctly setting its own time from external sources. If you are on a closed network with no access to external time sources (or you have an internal clock card that sets the time), you may set Domain Time Server to use the internal Windows clock as a source. On the Obtain the Time property page, uncheck all sources, and also uncheck the Refuse to serve time until this machine's clock has been set checkbox.

        See the Obtain the Time property page for more info on configuring time sources.

      2. Check the Analyze time samples and choose the best, or average equally good samples checkbox. This ensures Domain Time Server will select the most accurate time from among your listed sources.

      3. On the Timings property page, set both the Check Interval when able to get and correct the time and Check Interval when getting the fails settings to use the same fixed period, i.e. every 1 minute.

      4. On the Domain Role property page, uncheck both the Enable cascade signals and Enable Advisory signals checkboxes. If you have other Domain Time Servers, you may consider disabling these settings on those machines as well. These signals help Domain Time machines running NTP or DT2 protocols to converge more quickly across your domain, but the extra sync triggers can cause problems for Domain Time PTP slaves by shortening their sample collection period unexpectedly.

      5. If this machine will be a backup master using the Default or Enterprise profiles, also configure the machine to be a PTP slave as described above. Telecom profile masters cannot be configured as backup slaves.

    3. Be sure the Enable IEEE 1588 Precision Time Protocol (PTP) checkbox is checked, then click the Options link to display the IEEE Precision Time Protocol Options page. Then, click the button to display the Master Options dialog page.

    4. Select the delay transport you want Domain Time Server to use:

      Unicast Telecom subscriptions if you want Server to act as a Telecom master server.
      Multicast using IPv4 if you want Server to act as a Default or Enterprise profile server over IPv4. (default)
      Multicast using IPv6 if you want Server to act as a Default or Enterprise profile server over IPv6.

    5. When using the Default or Enterprise profiles: If your PTP Master is not on the same subnet as its slaves, be sure the Multicast IPv4 TTL (Hop count for IPv6) settings on the Server's Broadcasts and Multicasts property page are set high enough to allow multicasts to cross intervening switches and routers. Typically you would set this value at least one higher than the number of router hops involved. Note your Slaves must also have their router hops values configured to allow their multicasts to cross any boundaries.

    6. Check the Allow this machine to become a PTP server checkbox. Domain Time will then participate in the PTP Best Master Clock election process.

      1. If this machine is to be the Grandmaster, set the Priority 1 and 2 values so that it has higher precedence (a lower numeric value) than any other PTP device on the network.

      2. If this machine is not to be the Grandmaster, set the Priority 1 and 2 values so that it has lower precedence (a higher numeric value) than the Grandmaster priority settings.

    7. You may check the activity of the PTP conversations by clicking the Status and Graph links.

 

PTP Profiles
The Precision Time Protocol IEEE1588-2008 (PTP) specification includes definition of several operating profiles. A profile is simply a selection of settings and attributes optimized for different environments or purposes. The idea behind profiles is that, as long as all nodes use the same profile, devices can interoperate with a minimum of user configuration.

    The default profiles
    IEEE 1588-2008 Annex J specifies two main default profiles for use with PTP. The profiles are identical except for the method of delay measurement specified. Both of the default profiles use the IEEE1588-2008 defined "Best Master Clock" (BMC) algorithm to determine which node on the network is master. It is not unusual for a network to consist of nodes using either of the default protocols.

    Although the default profiles specify values for certain parameters, administrators have the ability to change some of them. Many administrator-selectable values are distributed automatically, but several important ones are not. Domain Time automatically queries the master using management messages to discover important variables when possible, minimizing manual configuration. Other PTP devices or implementations may need to be manually configured for these items.

    • The Delay Request-Response Default PTP Profile (identifier code 00-1B-19-00-01-00) uses End-to-End (E2E) delay measurement. Slaves send periodic delay requests via multicast to the entire network. A master overhearing the request sends a multicast delay response packet with the slave request's sequence number and portIdentity. All nodes on the network hear each request and each response, even though delay requests are only answered by masters, and a particular delay response is only meaningful to the slave listening for that particular packet. The delay request frequency is normally controlled by the master when using E2E. The required interval is sent as part of the master’s regular packets. Domain Time II allows you to override this automatic request frequency and specify a fixed interval.

    • The Peer-to-Peer Default PTP Profile (identifier code 00-1B-19-00-02-00) uses Peer-to-Peer (P2P) for delay measurements. The operation is very similar to E2E, but is primarily used by Boundary Clocks, or between multiple appliance-type grandmasters, rather than by individual nodes. The P2P request packet is larger, and the response may be either one-step or two-step. Two-step responses are used by masters who can measure the exact departure time of the first reply, but cannot dynamically rewrite the contents of the first reply to include the correct time. The second reply contains a more precise timestamp. P2P uses the master’s announce frequency times as an implementation-dependent multiplier to derive the delay request frequency. Domain Time II allows you to override this automatic request frequency and specify a fixed interval. P2P suffers the same excessive bandwidth issue as E2E, in that all requests and responses are sent to the entire network via multicast.

      Bandwidth reduction
      Since using multicast for all PTP traffic is an inefficient use of network resources, methods have been introduced to reduce the amount of multicast traffic, primarily by using directed unicast packets for the delay measurement portion of the PTP conversation between masters and slaves.

      • Hybrid Mode
        Hybrid Mode is not defined by IEEE1588-2008, but it is in common use. It does not have an identifier code of its own; rather it operates using either E2E or P2P with one important difference: Delay requests are sent directly to the master using unicast. Masters that support hybrid mode will send the reply by unicast directly back to the requesting slave. This allows messages that need to be seen by the entire network (a master's Announces and Syncs) to continue being multicast, but limits delay measurement exchanges to only the nodes that need to see them. Other nodes do not need to process and discard inapplicable delay measurement requests or replies. Domain Time, PTPd, and most other implementations of IEEE1588-2008, support hybrid mode. Most grandmaster appliances also support it. Appliances that do not support hybrid mode may respond to unicast requests with multicast responses, or may not respond at all (the behavior is manufacturer-defined). Domain Time automatically detects both which profile to use and whether or not hybrid mode is supported by the master.

      • Unicast Negotiation
        Unicast negotiation is described in Table 34 of the IEEE1588-2008 standard (REQUEST_UNICAST_TRANSMISSION). Negotiated unicast works somewhat like DHCP, in that leases are requested, granted or denied, have expiry times, and must be renewed. This is primarily useful in networks that do not allow multicast, such as older telecommunication networks. Domain Time supports unicast negotiation as a slave (as of v5.2.b.20180606) or master (as of v5.2.b.20180801) using the Telecom Profile.

      PTP Domains
      IEEE1588-2008 specifies a "domain" to be a number in the range of 0-127 (default 0), that logically separates multiple timing networks on the same wire. Each node is required to have an operating domain number, and to ignore messages originating from or addressed to a different domain number.

      • Dynamic Domains
        Two equal grandmasters in the same domain will not both send Announce and Sync messages. Using the BMC algorithm, they will decide which is primary and which is secondary. The secondary grandmaster will enter passive mode, waiting for the primary to go offline or suffer a clock degradation, at which point the roles will switch. This mechanism works as expected as long as the grandmasters use the same domain number.

        Multiple grandmasters visible on the same wire may all act as primaries as long as they each use a different domain number. In this way, networks can be logically separated even if not physically segmented.

        Slaves, too, have an operating domain, and IEEE1588-2008 requires them to exercise the BMC algorithm only among masters advertising in the same domain. The Enterprise Profile (see below) provides for slaves to follow masters in more than one domain, although the mechanism and selection criteria have yet to be determined. As of version 5.2.b.20161215, Domain Time supports the dynamic domain concept, whether or not the Enterprise Profile is specified. When dynamic domain is enabled, Domain Time slaves will choose the best master from among all visible masters in domains 0 through 127, and change their operating domain to match the domain of the selected master.

      • The "All Domains" Domain Number
        Domain numbers are conveyed in an unsigned 8-bit value. Ordinary clocks are restricted to domains 0-127. Values from 128-255 are reserved, with some of them allocated by the forthcoming PTPv3 specification, but 255 is never used.

        IEEE1588-2008 supports special values for clockIdentities and portNumbers that act as wildcards for management messages. A clockIdentity of all 1's is addressed to "all clocks," and a portNumber of all 1's is addressed to "all ports." Therefore a portIdentity of all 1's means "all ports of all clocks" but is limited to nodes using the same domain.

        Oddly, IEEE1588-2008 does not include a wildcard "all domains" value. An 8-bit value of all 1's is 255 (0xFF), and is reserved by the standard, so is the perfect candidate for a domain wildcard value. Domain Time will respond to management messages addressed to domain 255. The reply will contain the node's current operating domain. In theory, a management station could send a single multicast addressed to all clocks, all ports, all domains, and, by collecting the responses, discover the identities of each node, including all of the logical domains in use.

        Because the "all domains" domain wildcard is not in PTPv2, and PTPv3 is still under development, Domain Time does not place messages addressed to the wildcard domain on the wire, but will respond correctly to management messages addressed this way.

    Other Profiles
    Various additional profiles have been introduced to address specialized needs or industry requirements.

    • The Enterprise Profile (identifier code 00-00-5E-00-01-00, see draft 09 et sequelae) is an emerging standard that is already widely deployed. It is a specialized version of the default End-to-End Profile, and is interoperable with the default End-to-End Profile. It provides potentially tighter synchronization, allows for slaves to follow masters in multiple domains, and eliminates the need to query the masters for network variables.

      Domain Time, in auto-detect mode, will use the values provided by the master, regardless of whether the master is using the End-to-End Default Profile or the Enterprise Profile. As of version 5.2.b.20170101, you may force Domain Time to use the Enterprise Profile.

      When using the Enterprise Profile as a slave, Domain Time will not query the master; it always uses the values specified by the profile, and always uses hybrid mode. When using the Enterprise Profile as a master, Domain Time uses the values specified by the profile, will respond to multicast queries with multicast responses, and will respond to unicast queries with unicast responses.

      Note that although the Enterprise Profile's basic goal is largely designed around codification of hybrid mode, it also sets several values intended to be fixed. As with the default profiles, manufacturers can vary some of these values. In particular, a master may send Sync messages more often than once per second, and it may provide, when queried, a different delay measurement interval for slaves to use.

        Key Points
        — This profile is a codification of hybrid mode, with fixed values for packet intervals
        — Uses a fixed announce multiplier of 3 through the network
        — Requires masters to use a fixed announce interval of 1
        — Requires masters to use a fixed sync interval of 1
        — Requires masters to use multicast for Announce and Sync messages
        — Requires masters to respond to unicast delay requests with unicast delay responses
        — Slaves use a fixed delay measurement interval of 1
        — Slaves are forbidden from attempting unicast negotiation
        — Slaves are required to use E2E instead of P2P for delay measurement
        — Slaves are allowed to choose from masters in multiple domains
        — Slaves are encouraged to use unicast for delay requests
        — Nodes are not forbidden from using multicast for management messages
        — Masters are not forbidden from responding to multicast messages via multicast

    • The Telecom Profile (identifier code 00-19-A7-00-01-00) is not one of the default profiles and is not compatible with them. Each slave node must be configured with the IP address and domain number of the master(s) it is allowed to use. The slave then obtains separate leases for Announces, Syncs, and E2E delay measurements by exchanging unicast messages with the master(s). The Telecom Profile uses a custom BMC algorithm, as defined by ITU-T G.8265.1, using the master's clockClass, the master's priority 2 value, and finally the local priority. Local priority is based on the order in which you provision the list of masters. The Telecom Profile requires that a given node is either always a slave or always a master; this is why Domain Time, when configured to use the Telecom Profile as a slave, can never assume the master role. Domain Time supports unicast negotiation as a slave (as of v5.2.b.20180606) or master (as of v5.2.b.20180801).

      Since you must provision a Telecom Profile slave with the master's IP and domain number, the Dynamic Domain checkbox will be grayed-out. Domain Time can follow up to sixteen Telecom masters in any combination of domains.

    • The 802.1AS Profile (identifier code 00-80-C2-00-01-00) is aimed primarily at the audio-video industry. This is a specialized version of the default Peer-to-Peer Profile using multicast for all messages, and different requirements for certain types of message contents. Its primary goal is to provide reliable timestamps across multiple nodes used for streaming source material. It is not, generally, interoperable with the default Peer-to-Peer Profile, and there are several mutually-incompatible versions in common use. Domain Time can usually slave successfully to an 802.1AS master, but compatibility must be determined on a trial-and-error basis due to the conflicting definitions.

 

Configurable Options

While PTP is designed to operate on the local segment without any configuration by the administrator, Domain Time II nevertheless exposes a few options for customization.

  • PTP Domain
    Networks of clocks using PTP are separated into logical “domains,” or groups of clocks. Nodes will only respond to messages sent to their domain. The domain is specified by a number, and the default domain is 0 (zero). Any number between 0 and 127 inclusive is a valid domain number. If you change this setting on your master clock, you must change each Domain Time II machine to match.

    As of version 5.2.b.20170101, you may use the Dynamic Domains feature by checking the Dynamic (allow any domain when slave) checkbox.

  • PTP Profile
    The default operation of Domain Time II is to detect the delay mechanism used by the master clock. The options are:

    1. Auto-detect
    2. End-To-End Default Profile (00-1B-19-00-01-00)
    3. End-To-End Enterprise Profile (00-00-5E-00-01-00)
    4. End-To-End Telecom Profile (00-19-A7-00-01-00) - added as of v5.2.b.20180606. This option cannot be auto-discovered.
    5. Peer-to-Peer Default Profile (00-1B-19-00-02-00)
    6. Disable link delay measurement

  • Delay Transport
    The default operation of Domain Time II is to test the master clock for unicast delay support and use unicast if possible. The options are:

    1. Auto-detect
    2. Unicast (hybrid mode)
    3. Multicast (standard mode)

  • IPv6 Scope
    The default operation of Domain Time II’s support for PTP over IPv6 is to listen and send on the site-local scope. You may override this to specify link-local scope instead.

  • Statistical options
    Domain Time applies statistical analysis to acquired PTP sync and delay samples. In most cases, the default settings are optimal, however, if both your PTP master and slaves are not on a stable, local subnet with low-latency you may find some improvement by adjusting these values. Pay close attention to the results of your changes, as they can have adverse consequences on your accuracy, and even your ablity to synchronize at all.

      Use smoothing for meanPathDelay: Disable only if you have significant variable latency between your master and slaves.
      Cap latency at hectos: Ignores any samples with latency larger than this value. Do NOT use unless you have significant variable latency between your master and slaves. Enabling this setting can result in a complete inablity to synchronize.
      Use smoothing for delta calculations: Disable only if you have significant variable latency or timestamps between your master and slaves.
      Coalesce PTP samples separately: Does not combine samples collected during the sync period into a single logged value, but logs them individually in Trace mode.
      Crosscheck with other sources if delta exceeds ms: If the delta (variance) between the slave and the master exceeds this threshold, Domain time will fall back to the NTP or DT2 time sources listed on the Obtain the Time property page. There should always be at least one valid time source listed there. PTP is quite slow at correcting large variances both during startup and in the event of a large excursion. NTP and/or DT2 will recover much faster. Once the delta is back within tolerance, PTP will resume synchronization. You should not disable this option under most circumstances.

      The Delay/Pdelay Request Interval and Announce Receipt Timeout Multipier values should be set to Automatic in almost all cases.

  • Best Master Clock Options
    Domain Time II is a software-based implementation of PTP. The default operation according to the standard is for Domain Time II to discover and synchronize with the best master clock available on the local segment. If that clock goes offline and another clock assumes the master role, or if another clock claims to be more authoritative, Domain Time II will begin synchronizing to the new master automatically. The standard behavior is sometimes undesirable. A user could bring up a new master clock on the network that, either by intention or mistake, assumes the master role without providing better time.

    Domain Time II optionally allows you to override the automatic selection of master clock by specifying the IP address(es) or CIDR mask(s) of the master(s) to which you are willing to synchronize. When you override the automatic selection of master clock, Domain Time II only pays attention to the IP addresses you specify; messages from other IP addresses are silently discarded.

    If you are using the Telecom profile, you must enter the IP addresses of Telecom master(s) in this box. In Telecom mode, servers will be used in the order listed. Default and Enterprise profile PTP nodes automatically choose a master according to the algorithm specified in the standard.

    Note: In Default or Enterprise profile mode, specifying a list of machines for synchronization may result in no server being available because the other nodes may elect a master that you have chosen to ignore. Use this option with caution.

For how to configure other available options, please see the IEEE 1588-2008 specification for explanations and recommended settings. Also, contact your vendor for device-specific recommendations/requirements for compatibility with their PTP products.

 


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